Thursday, March 19, 2020

Relating Saint Leo Core Values to the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights Essays

Relating Saint Leo Core Values to the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights Essays Relating Saint Leo Core Values to the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights Essay Relating Saint Leo Core Values to the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights Essay Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Relating Saint Leo Core Values to the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights Indeed, it is evident that the tenets embedded within the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights emulate the Core values embedded in Saint Leo University. The principles within the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights coincide with the Core Values of Community of Saint Leo University in various ways. This is based on the primal assertion exemplified by the ethics and morals exalted in both institutions regarding the individual and the society. Irrespective of the differences in the objectives of the two institutions based on the stakeholders, it is still clear that both principles and values within the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights and Saint Leo University relate to provide equality, fairness and respect of human dignity within the community and society. In accord with the Prelude of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, emphasis is put on the development of aptitudes, character and knowledge by Saint Leo University for the sole purpose of maintaining its excellence. Saint Leo University ensures that it sets a general standard of accomplishment for all students in order to allow them to develop their skills, personalities and understanding and as such, acquire appropriate and effectual acknowledgment nationwide and globally. This relates considerably to the overall overture of the Declaration of Human Rights, which also acts as a general standard of accomplishment for all persons and countries for ensuring the protection of rights and liberties and recognition locally and universally for all peoples through instruction and education. Consequently, with respect to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights’ principles, Saint Leo University endeavors to promote the development of sociable and cordial learning communities countrywide and worldwide. Furthermore, to fulfill this objective, Saint Leo University attempts to nurture a sense of belonging, interdependence and unity without political, sex, color, language or racial distinctions. As such, Saint Leo University plans to build a communally responsible environment for learning that excludes discrimination that arises from a country’s international status regarding the specific community receiving service from the University. This is in line with the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which strives to ensure that every individual receives education and learning irrespective of ideological, physical and terrestrial distinctions. Alternately, Saint Leo University strives to ensure that the exclusive talents and aptitudes innate within an individual receive value or appreciation and reverence. Regarding the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the University attempts to promote friendship and lenience, indulgence among various stakeholders of institutions such as groups and students. The objective of this is to ascertain the provision of an abundant scope that will support the liberated trade of thoughts and innovations among persons. This specific statement correlates to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which endorses and fosters the delivery of opinions without intrusion and restriction and the reception and exchange of innovations, ideas and information among individuals through various forms of media irrespective of any boundaries. Furthermore, Saint Leo University strives to promote personal development for all individuals. Based on this value, Saint Leo University urges the development of every individual’s body, soul and mind in order to acquire balanced lives. As such, members within the community must express their obligation towards individual development in order to reinforce the disposition of the community. As such, Saint Leo University ensures that personal development is exalted through education in order to ascertain decent development of the individual personality. This is in accordance with the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which ensures that every person within the community possesses communal duties aimed at complete development of personality. Furthermore, the communal duties should make it possible for personal development. Finally, Saint Leo University facilitates communal development on a global scale by ensuring that it provides the require resources. As such, the University nurtures a force of service in order to facilitate the provision of resources that will assist in the development of communities. Saint Leo University ensures that resources are optimized and applied within the community in order to adhere to the goals and mission of the institution. This is in accordance with the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which ensures that every person and community are entitled to receive resources in order to ascertain full development of individual personalities and the development of the community as a whole. In conclusion, the principles in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Saint Leo’s Core Values of Community indeed relate to a considerable degree. Both doctrines ensure that peoples and communities live with each other cohesively. Consequently, the doctrines for both institutions stress on the full development of personality among individuals regardless of the distinctions and as such, negate the use and support of discriminative and biased tactics. Restricting such practices based on the principles and the values upheld by both codes propels the objectives of the institutions, which involves the facilitation of equality and fairness in the provision of intrinsic needs for every person in every community nationally and internationally.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Illogical Comparisons The Weirdest Topic on SAT Writing

Illogical Comparisons The Weirdest Topic on SAT Writing SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Oftentimes, if I make an outlandish comparison, someone will turn to me and say, "You can't compare apples and oranges, Alex." Grammatically speaking, however, you absolutely can compare apples and oranges- they're both fruits! However,it's true that some comparisons are nonsensical, like a comparison between apples and eating apples. This kind of construction is called an illogical comparison, and it's one of the most unusual concepts on SAT Writing. Though essentially simple to spot, illogical comparisons are unfamiliar for most students becausethey rarely come up elsewhere. Feature image credit:MicroAssist/Flickr You Can Only Compare Equivalent Things An illogical comparison occurs when a sentence compares two things that aren't of the same type: Jimmy’s restaurant has more customers than Bob does. Even though it might seem fine, this sentence is comparing "Jimmy's restaurant"with "Bob," which makes no sense. In order to correct it, we have to alter the wordingso that the two things being compared are the same type of thing: Jimmy’s restaurant has more customers than Bob's restaurant does. This sentence, though correct, sounds pretty repetitive. To streamline it, we can drop the second "restaurant": Jimmy’s restaurant has more customers than Bob's does. It's still clear that we're comparing Jimmy and Bob's restaurants, but in a way that's not as redundant sounding. Depending on the sentence's construction, it mayalso be correct to substitute "that" or "those" for the second noun (as long as it's the same as the first one): I prefer the novels of J.K. Rowling to those of Stephenie Meyer. ("Those" takes the place of "the novels.") Though they look the same on most maps, the sizeof Alaska is actually twice that of Texas. ("That" takes the place of "the size.") There are two main types of illogical comparison errors that appear on the SAT writing: comparisons between people and things and comparisons between The first key rule is that you must compare people to people and things to things. So to return to our first example, it's correct to compare Bob's restaurant and Jimmy's restaurant because they're both things or to compare Bob and Jimmy because they're both people but you can't compare Jimmy's restaurant and Bob or Bob's restaurant and Jimmy. The second rule is that you can't compare something of specific type to all things of that type. This rule may sound strange, but it doesn't make sense to compare one person with everyone- you would compare them with everyone else. You can't compare something with a group that includes that thing without specifying that you're talking about everything else in the group. Let's look at an example: Incorrect: A cheetah is faster than any land mammal. Correct:A cheetah is faster than any other land mammal. Although most illogical comparisons questions on the SAT test one of these rules, you may see some that don't. In those cases, you'll have to use common sense to determine if a comparison is logical. For example, it makes sense to compare a train and a car, it doesn't make sense to compare a train and the length of a car. Pay attention to exactly what the sentence is saying- it's easy to extrapolate the intendedpointand miss the error in the wording. Keep this SAT writing strategy in mind! You can compare authors to authors and books to books but not books to authors. (Image credits: far left, Daniel Ogren; left, Gage Skidmore) How to Approach Illogical Comparisons on the SAT Illogical comparisons questions appear relatively frequently on the SAT writing: you are likely to see one or twoof them, especially since they can appear inboth Identifying Sentence Errors and Improving Sentences questions. Luckily, illogical comparisons generally appear in very similar ways, sothere are just a couple of clues that you need to watch outfor because they will often signal a comparison issue: Comparison key words- the words "like," "unlike," "as," and especially "than" almost always indicate a comparison and thus the chance for an illogicalone Full names- this is a slightly weird point, but if a question includes the full name of a person it often involves an illogical comparison. These names usually belong toartists or writers, and the sentence will set up a faulty equivalencebetween the individual and her work. Practicelooking for these clues on every SAT writing question until it becomes second nature. Identifying Sentence Errors Unlike most of the grammatical issues that show up in Identifying Sentence Errors (ISE) questions, illogical comparisons are hard to spot by just checking underlined words. Instead, as I mentioned above, you’ll need to keep an eye out for words that signal a comparison (like/unlike, as, than) and full names of individuals. If you see a comparison that you think might be faulty there are threesteps you need to take: Check for underlined nouns. Generally speaking, if there is an illogical comparison, one of the mismatched nouns will be underlined. Determine what the comparison is between. What two things isthe sentence, as written, comparing? Circle the nouns in the text. Decide whether the two things are equivalent. Is there a person vs. thing conflict? Are the two words being compared not equivalent in some other way? Let’s go through this process on a real SAT question: As with all ISE questions, the first step is to read the sentence. In this case, you should notice the clues "writer Sigrid Undset" and "like," which indicate that there may be an incorrect comparison. Are there any underlined nouns? Yes, both C and D include a noun. It's not immediately obvious which is involved in a comparison, so let's move on. What is being compared? Nowthe questions gets a bit trickier- the first part of the sentence, "Norwegian writer Sigrid Undset is like the novelist Sir Walter Scott," includes a comparison, but neither of our two underlined nouns. Plus, it's definitely correct, since it compares two people. However, there's another comparison in this sentence, "unlike his books," which does include an underlined phrase. So what's being compared with "his books"? "Unlike his books" is a modifier describing "she," which refers to Sigrid Undset. Are the two things equivalent?The comparison is between Sigrid Undset, a person, and SirWalter Scott'sbooks, things, so this is an illogical comparison. C is the correct answer- "his books" should be replaced with "him." This is an especially tricky question because of itscomplicated sentence structure (C is actually a faulty modifier as well), but following these steps will allow you to break down even the most complicated constructions. Let's move on to illogical comparisons in Improving Sentences. Improving Sentences Illogical comparisons appear in much the same way in Improving Sentences as they do in ISE, so you'll need to keep an eye out for the same clues: full names of people and comparison words. Once you've determined that there's likely an illogical comparison, follow these steps: Understand the error. The first step is to determine, what, if anything, is wrong with the comparison. Why are the two items being compared not equivalent? Rememberthat the most common issues are comparing people to things and something to all things of its type. Rule out answers that make the same mistake. Once you understand why the comparison is illogical, you can rule out all the answers that don't fix the problem. Pick between remaining choices.If there's more than one answer left, choose between the remaining answers. Watch for extra words that make the sentence ungrammatical and issues with plural vs. singular. This process may seem confusing, but it's actually quite simple in practice. Let's try it out on an official SAT question: After reading the sentence, you should notice the clue word "than," which indicates that this likely an illogical comparisons question. What, if anything, is wrong with the comparison?The sentence is comparing "the mass of its tiny body" with "humans." This is an illogical comparison- you can't equate the mass of something with a human. Thecomparison should be between the mass of an insect and the mass of a human.We can eliminateA. Rule out answers that make the same mistake.Answer choices C and D contain the same error: C merelytweaks the word order and D replaces the singular "human" with the plural "humans," which is actually even more wrong since the comparison is with a singular insect's body mass. Answer E seems to fix the problem by adding "body," but it's still not correct to compare a human body with the mass of an insect body. Pick between the remaining choices. The only answer that's left is B, which correctly compares "the mass of its tiny body" and "that of a human's body." B is the right answer. Comparing the size of an Allosaurus and the size of a human makes sense! (Image credit:Dropzink) Overview:Key Rules and SAT Writing Tips As a review, the list below includes the main ideas we've covered in this article and some helpfultips for using them on the SAT Writing. Clues to watch for: Comparative constructions: than, as, like/unlike Full names, especially of artists and authors Underlined nouns Key rules: Comparisons must be between equivalent things Compare people to people and things to things Don't compare something to a group it's part of SAT writing strategies: Practice watching for the clues and checking whethercomparisons are illogical. This type of error is initially difficult to spot, but once you've gotten familiar withthem, they tend to jump out at you. When dealing with illogical comparisons, don’t assume shortest is best. Though this rule often works for other types of errors, for these questions it will almost always give you the wrong answer. Remember that "that" is singular and "those" is plural. Test Your Knowledge! I've created some SAT Writing practice questions to help you get the hang of recognizing and understanding illogical comparison questions. Checkthem out below and send any questions my way in the comments! 1. Michel Foucault's theories about(A) the function ofpower in society are(B)radically(C) different than most philosophers(D).No error(E) 2. The British Library has more books than the books in all of the world's libraries. A.the books in all of the world's libraries. B. all of the world's libraries. C.the books in anyof the world's other libraries. D. the world's libraries. E. any other library in the world. 3. Throughout(A) history, many artists have been(B) more famous for their life stories than(C) for their work (D). No error. (E) 4. Although we often think of cheetahs as the fastest animals in the world, the speed of a peregrine falcon is actually greater than it. A.the speed of a peregrine falcon is actually greater than it. B. peregrine falcons are actually faster than them. C. the speed of a peregrine falcon is actually greater. D. peregrine falcons are more fast than those other animals. E. greater yet is the speed of the peregrine falcon. Answers: 1. D, 2. E, 3. E, 4. B What's Next? Since illogical comparisons are errorsin sentence structure, they're similar to issues with parallelism and faulty modifiers (coming soon). Consider taking a look atour grammar guides on those topics. If you're planning to take the SAT next year, make sure to check out our guide to the redesigned SAT. Maybe you're more concerned about the essay? In that case, take a look atour guides onhow to score a perfect 12, how to plan your examples in advance, and 15 ways to improve your score. For more big picture strategies, try these 8key tipsor check outour guide to reaching an 800 on the SAT Writing. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this Writing and grammar lesson, you'll love our program.Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands ofpractice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial:

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Major thoughts or conclusions on role of intelligence in threat Essay

Major thoughts or conclusions on role of intelligence in threat managemenM - Essay Example It is very sad that most of the successes never get to the mainstream media as opposed to the failures. The agencies operate as devolved units that support the government in diplomacy as well as during wartime. The support was best witnessed during the clandestine elimination of Osama Bin Laden the slain Al Qaeda chief by special forces. In homeland security and defense, the intelligence protects the society from security threats and intrusions that would lead to endangering of the common person, as well as the government. In its various forms, the intelligence operates both strategically and tactically to ensure that accurate information is presented to the right authorities as and when needed. The processes involved in the information gathering stages from tasking, collection, processing and disseminating the information is of critical significance to the country in combating terrorism1. In carrying out intelligence duties, solid support from the police and other government agencies is very significant in preventing future attacks. Monitoring of the terrorist activities in unison with the police will ensure that threats are countered before they happened and that most networks are dismantled forthwith. Such unison calls for all arms of the government to give the intelligence agencies and officials the ultimate support possible for current and future security apparatus of the United States and the world. Conclusively, the intelligence is a crucial factor in the government that is often misinterpreted once threats occur but with the required support, the role played by the ladies and gentlemen in this facet remain of top most important to the US government and

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Persuasion eassy about torture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Persuasion eassy about torture - Essay Example In such a way, choosing to torture someone just in the hopes that such an inhuman process would provide the needed information would open up Pandora’s box with regards to the lengths that our society might then be willing to go to in order to pursue it’s ends. Not only is this unethical, it represents an affront to the many hundreds of thousands of individuals who have died to ensure that the United States remains free and provides a stark level of contrast to the many despotic regimes that exist elsewhere throughout the world. Although the temptation may be strong to bend the rules and engage in what would otherwise be considered dehumanizing and inhumane treatment of others, these are not the principles that we should want to bequeath to our children and grandchildren. A far worse fate than losing lives to terrorism would be spitting upon all of the lives of the fallen who have died to ensure that this country remained a liberal and free democracy that did not engage in such inhumane treatment of

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Understanding Educational Aspirations And Expectations

Understanding Educational Aspirations And Expectations It is no longer questioned that high education level and human capital formation promote human well-being and are one of the main preconditions for economic growth (Romer, 1989:28). Moreover, along with evolving globalization, competition and economic challenges world is facing, returns to academic achievements have become larger than ever (Harmon and Walker, 2001:39), and low academic achievements can be seen as a constraint for economic independence. It has been observed that during the World financial crisis unemployment has risen exactly among the less educated people  [1]  . Therefore, it would be just natural if we would see more young adults, from both genders and all ethnic and social groups, reaching for higher educational levels and taking advantage of possibility to gain higher returns. However, evidence shows that educational attainment among youth differs significantly (e.g., Betz and Fitzgerald, 1987). Therefore, the question remains: why equally talented individual s with similar abilities and initial preferences make different academic choices, and why some of them end up in lower paying jobs and occupations? Economists have tried to explain this phenomenon with the existence of credit market imperfections, which individuals from less advantageous backgrounds might be facing (Loury 1981, Galor and Zeira 1993, Piketty 1997). However, these hypotheses are questioned in a large body of literature. Although in developing countries credit constraints might be a partial explanation for differences in educational attainment, this does not fully explain the differences in the developed world. Evidence shows that in developed word families facing economic constraints, when it comes to education, represent only a small part of the community (Cameron and Taber 2002). Besides, nowadays there exist many organizations and funds which are providing scholarships and financial help to students from low income families  [2]  . Therefore, it is essential to look for other, more internal reasons that could explain differences in educational choices and attainment among young adults with equal abilities a nd preferences. For being able to understand and change ones educational and career choices, it is crucial to understand what determines his or her aspirations. However, explaining it is not a straight forward task. Aspirations are determined already in early childhood and are prone to changes throughout the life. Moreover, sometimes high educational aspirations are not sufficient to guarantee a better outcome. This phenomenon exists due to aspiration-expectation gap, when ones desired goals do not coincide with the expected outcome due to the disbelief to a successful result. This pattern is especially observed among women and certain ethnic groups. Therefore, it is not only crucial to look at the level of educational aspirations, but it is also essential to ask if ones aspirations are always fulfilled. Although a considerable amount of literature has examined educational and career aspirations of young adults, the existing literature tends to provide somehow different conclusions; therefore, a comprehensive and critical literature review, overlooking different factor influence ones academic and career aspirations, is still missing. The purpose of this study is to contribute to an understand of how factors like gender, ethnicity, peers, parents, teachers and self-efficacy beliefs influence young adult academic and career aspirations and decision making. This thesis will also explain why sometimes high aspirations for girls and Black students do not lead to higher educational outcomes; the existence of an aspiration-expectation gap will be supported by the latest empirical data. Further, this thesis will discuss the existing policy measures aimed to promote and raise children educational attainment. Hence, the research questions of this thesis are: What are the determinants of educational and career aspirations? Why high educational aspirations do not always lead to better outcomes? What are the existing policies and projects in order to raise ones educational and career expectations? The focus of the thesis will be qualitative studies and will be based on an extensive literature review, covering various study fields, explaining the determinants of educational and career aspirations (Part I). Part II will provide different theories explaining an aspiration-expectation gap for girls and Black students; the existence of it will be supported by the latest quantitative data from U.S. Census Bureau 2010. Further Part III will concentrate on the overview of the policy measures and government projects that have been implemented in order to raise ones expectation level and close the aspiration-expectation gap. Chapter 1 Literature review of the determinants of educational and career aspirations This chapter introduces the determinants of educational and career aspirations and expectations. It begins with an introduction of the necessary definitions. Further, it is explained how ones aspirations and expectations are formed by providing different views and findings from an existing literature. 1.1 Defining educational and career aspirations It is believed that student educational and career aspirations are the most relevant factors determining ones future educational attainment (Gottfredson 1981; Trice and King, 1991). Therefore, it is essential to understand the exact meaning of aspirations. However, there has not been reached a consensus of one and certain definition; therefore, various explanations have been provided by different authors. Markus and Nurius (1986) have reported aspirations as ones ideas and hopes of possible selves, i.e., what a person would like to and what would not like to become or achieve. In psychology, aspiration level has been defined as the level of quality of a task which one desires to attain. It is a determinant of an individuals performance level in the future. It has been hypothesized that aspiration level varies from persons to person and place to place and is determined by factors that may change and influence aspirations level during the lifetime  [3]  . Likewise, the Wisconsin model  [4]  , which is a socio-economical model developed by Sewell and his colleagues in 1969 meant to explain ones social mobility and its determinants, provides definitions of educational and career aspirations. The educational aspiration level variable in the model is explained as the level of education one would like to attain, e.g., not continue higher education after high school, finish vocational school or attains college or university degree. Sewell et al. (1969) defines career aspiration level as ones ambitions and thoughts about their future occupation. However, some studies have suggested that high educational aspirations do not necessarily lead to high educational attainment (Empson, 1992; Conroy, 1997). Gottfredson (1981) has identified this phenomenon and has provided explanation to it. She suggests the existence of realistic aspirations or expectations and idealistic aspirations. The former is applied when ones educational and career aspirations are tempered by knowledge of obstacles and opportunities (Brown, 2002: 91), while the idealistic aspirations are ones desired goals and ideal education and occupation, in other words best possible life outcome. If there is a difference between these two types of aspirations and ones idealistic aspirations do not reflect ones expectations or realistic aspirations, there exist an aspiration-expectation gap (Danziger and Eden, 2006). Hence, in this thesis Gottfredsons theory about two types of aspirations and Danzigers and Edens definition of aspiration-expectation gap will be used. Firstly, determinants of idealistic aspirations will be discussed. Later this thesis will elaborate on the external factors that shape ones expectations or realistic aspirations. For the sake of simplicity, in the following text this thesis will refer to realistic aspirations as expectations while to idealistic aspirations as aspirations. 1.2 Determinants of educational and career aspirations and expectations Understanding the exact elements that determine ones educational and career aspirations and expectations is a tricky task. Existing evidence shows that there are many factor and circumstances that can shape them in a positive or negative way. Therefore, to contribute to a clearer understanding, in the following sections this thesis will deeply and broadly examine the determinants of aspirations and expectations. 1.2.1 Initial endowments determinants of ones aspirations We will firstly look at the initial endowment determinants, i.e. gender and ethnicity, which influence ones aspirations. These factors are extremely powerful in shaping ones academic and career aspiration level already in an early childhood. 1.2.1.1 Gender: Gender effect has a relevant role in determining ones aspiration level. A considerable amount of literature has focused on gender-related differences in academic and career aspirations (Howard, 1979; Betz and Fitzgerald, 1987; Danziger and Eden, 2007). Different views exist on the nature of the differences among both gender aspirations. Patton and Creed (2007) has argued that male students tend to hold higher aspirations for education level and position in the labor force, while Mau and Bikos (2000), approaching the same question, found the opposite. They claimed that girls are more likely to hold higher aspirations than men. Overall, most of the studies have supported Mau and Bikos (2000) view (Figure No.1) (e.g., Clift and Vaughan 1997; Butlin 1999; Anisef et al., 2001; Perry et al., 2009). Also, during the last decades female educational attainment and workforce has increased rapidly (Schoon, Martin and Ross, 2007); however, it has been observed that not too many women expect to follow careers which are mainly associated with the opposite sex, such as science and technology, despite the fact that these careers usually yield higher salary. This pattern becomes even more compelling as there is no evidence observed of differences i n quantitative abilities in tasks related to science and technology between both genders (Betz and Hackett, 1981). Figure No.1: Source: Looker, D. And Thiessen, V. (2004:Figure 1) 1.2.1.2 Ethnicity: Research has shown that educational and career aspirations vary across different ethnic groups. However, the results found in different studies yield different conclusions. It has been wildly assumed that the highest educational aspirations are held by Asian (especially Chinese) students (e.g., Cheng and Stark, 2002; Willitts et al., 2005). Their high aspirations are formed earlier than ones for other ethnic groups and are held constantly high throughout life (Kao and Tienda, 1998). Most of the researches contacted have found that White boys have the lowest aspiration level between all the other ethnic groups (Figure No.2) (Dillard and Perrin, 1980; Strand, 2007) and their educational achievements during the last years have increased less than for other ethnic groups (Figure No.3)  [5]  . White boys were found to hold lower aspirations than their Black peers in the research conducted by Wilson and Wilson (1992). Contrary, Cook et al. (1996) discovered that middle class White male s had higher educational aspirations than low-income African American males. However, this conclusion does not seem straight-forward as the differences might be also explained by the economic factors. Figure No.2: Figure No. 3: Data source: S., Strand (2007: 39) Data source: Department for Children, Schools and Families: Statistical First Release, England (2010: 12) Although, Strand (2007) has found that Black Caribbean and Black African students might have higher academic aspirations than White students, their higher educational attainment seems to be much lower (Figure No.4). Therefore, a question arises: what are the factors that do not allow high aspiration transformation into high achievements? The answer lies in the aspiration-expectation gap on which this thesis will elaborate in chapter 2. Figure No.3: Source: Jusan Ng (2011) 1.2.2 External factors determinants of ones expectations In the next two sub-sections, this thesis will concentrate on external factors, i.e., peers, teachers and parents, which can positively or negatively influence ones academic and career expectations. 1.2.2.1 Peer effect: A variable studied in the literature concerning the determinants of academic and career expectations is the peer effect. The peer effect refers to the positive or negative influence significant others have on ones expectations and level of achievement (e.g., by providing one with feedbacks, models or norms how they should behave, think and act in certain situations). Among their peers young adults develop their identities and self concept; therefore they are essential socialization agents for a young individual (Bandura, 1989; Brown et. al., 1994; Black, 2002). Although, some have argued that children expectations are more likely to be shaped by the characteristics of a family than by the characteristics of peers (Duncan et. al., 2001), relevant amount of the literature shows that peers play a crucial role in influencing ones achievement level and educational expectations (Peterson et al., 1986; Willms 1986; Goldstein et al., 2005). Ide et al. (1981) examined ten studies published form 1966 to 1978 that concerned the peer effects influence on ones academic achievements and expectations. In all these studies, they found a significant correlation. This finding is consistent with Downs and Rose (1991) who argue that peer effect is contributing to the construction of ones behavior and academic expectations. Another, slightly different view is held by Haller and Butterworth (1960) who look more critically on the straight forward correlation between ones academic expectations and peer influence. Although, they do not reject it, they emphasize that the initial factors, like characteristics and family backgrounds, could play a key role in bringing together similar individuals in that way forming homogeneous groups of peers. According to Jonsson and Mood (2008) children with high academic expectations and achievements are likely to connect with those sharing the same interests and expectations. Oppositely, adolescents, who have worse attitude to school and lower expectations, will most probable be attracted to peers with similar views (Ryan, 2000). In sum, it has been found that being around a certain group of people will have an effect on a persons future, specifically, it will impact the academic level or career one will expect to achieve. However, the degree of the importance of peers is ambiguous as different studies yield different results. 1.2.2.2 Teachers and parents influence: As discussed earlier peers have a certain influence on shaping ones academic expectations (e.g., Peterson et al., 1986; Willms, 1986; Black, 2002); however, a significant amount of literature points out the importance of familys and teachers influence on children long term decisions, e.g., occupation considerations (Jurkovic and Ulrici, 1985; OBrien, 1990; Furman and Buhrmeister, 1992; Wall et al., 1999; Duncan et. al., 2001). It is believed that teachers and parents can positively influence ones confidence and beliefs of his or her abilities, thus, persuading that the person is capable of being successful in further life (Van Auken and Stephens, 2006). According to Wall et al. (1999) parents as a support and role model have influence on ones conception about educational and career opportunities. Parents social support is directly linked with students school experiences, achievements and behaviors (Nurmi, 1987). There also exist a positive correlation between parents expectations for their child and childs expectations for himself (e.g., Davies and Kandel, 1981; Hossler and Stage, 1992). Family support can encourage the student to devote bigger effort to learning and school tasks (Gilbert et al., 1993). It is also observed that children who have the highest self-efficacy are the ones with the biggest family social support (Dubow and Ullman, 1989). In contrast, the ones with low family cohesion are more exposed to depression, low self-efficacy and self-esteem (Moran and Eckenrode, 1991; Cauce et al., 1992; Hirsch and DuBois, 1992). Moreover, Wall et al. (1999) has claimed a stronger correlation between young male expectations and the family support than the one for girls. In the research by Roper, (2008) it was shown that parent expectations and student GPA are correlated (Table No.1). Children with higher grades tended to have parents with higher expectations for them. According to De Coulon et al. (2008) also parents education level plays a significant role in formation of children expectations. In their research, they found a significant correlation between low literacy rates of parents and low test scores by their children. It was shown that parents with the lowest literacy skills were the least supportive and encouraging in relation to education. As a result, children with such parents were more likely to report dissatisfaction with school and develop low educational expectations. Table No.1: Source: Roper (2008: 2) A significant amount of literature has discussed parents and family role in shaping ones expectations, however, the body of literature about teachers expectation influence is rather small. Cheung (1995) found evidence on positive teacher influence on ones academic achievements. Teacher support has shown to have a bigger influence on women, student from lower socioeconomic backgrounds and ethnic minority perceptions of academic and career opportunities (Ellis and Lane, 1963; Wall et al., 1999). However, it is often blamed that teachers have insufficient expectations for their students, especially for students in rural areas and for certain student groups (Bishop, 1989; Hilliard III, 1991). It is shown that teachers tend to establish better contact and attitude forward students with higher ability (Bamburg, 1994). This is seen as a problem because children tend to internalize and adopt teacher perceptions about their abilities, which as a result, in case of low teacher expectations can lead to psychological constraints for self-efficacy and self-esteem (Raffini, 1993). To sum up, a considerable body of literature has shown that teachers, parents and peers can influence ones academic and career expectations. Young adults tend to internalize expectations that others have about him or her and accordingly adjust their own educational and career expectations. 1.2.3 Self-efficacy beliefs As already discussed, all of the beforehand mentioned factors, i.e., gender, ethnicity and social support, have an effect on shaping ones behavior, thoughts and attitudes towards different tasks, education levels and occupations. However, in order to be able to reach the aspired goals it is also extremely beneficial that one has a high self confidence in what he is doing. It was shown that teachers and parents have the ability to influence ones self-beliefs what in turn leads to higher or lower level of academic expectations of that individual. Therefore, this section will discuss why high self-efficacy beliefs, i.e., ones belief that she or he is capable of producing certain level of performance to attain certain goals (Bandura et al., 2001), are important in determining the outcome. The importance of self-efficacy on ones educational expectations have been wildly studied in the literature (e.g., Bandura, 1994; Lent and Brown, 1996; Nauta et al., 1998; Brown Lent, 2006); it has been proven that individuals self-efficacy beliefs have a significant importance in promoting positive outcomes and reducing the possibility of negative outcomes (Oyserman et al., 2006; Destin and Oyserman, 2009). Students who have high self-efficacy are more productive, efficient and confident about their performances than their peers with the same ability but lower self-efficacy. It has been also shown that they put more effort and are more concentrated on the task than others, as well as they are more committed to their goals (Bandura, 1997; Schunk and Pajares, 2005). Therefore, the ones with high self beliefs perform better and based on better outcomes have higher future academic and career expectations (Brown Lent, 2006) (Figure No.5)  [6]  . Figure No.5: Source: Looker, D. And Thiessen, V. (2004: Figure 10) Chapter 2 Aspiration-expectation gap In the previous chapter, determinants of ones academic and career aspirations and expectations were discussed. It was shown by the evidence from the existing literature, that girls are more likely to hold higher aspirations than boys (e.g., Clift and Vaughan 1997; Butlin 1999; Anisef et al., 2001; Perry et al., 2009) and Black adolescents hold higher aspirations than Whites (e.g., Wilson and Wilson, 1992; Strand, 2007). It was also shown that social support has an influence on forming ones expectations. However, high aspirations do not always lead to high educational attainment and high position in the labor force (Strand, 2007). It has been suggested that the problem lies in the difference between aspirations and expectations. Unfortunately, often academic and career expectations of girls, Black Africans and Black Caribbean students are lower than their aspirations due to some perceptions in the society, perceived barriers or even academic feedback (e.g., Gottfredson, 1981; Armstrong Crombie, 2000). As a result, this can lead to underachievement and lowered self-efficacy beliefs (Bandura et.al. 2001). This chapter will approach this phenomenon by providing existing and relevant theories that tend to explain the reasons of an existing aspiration-expectation gap for females and ethnic minorities. Later, empirical data obtained from U.S. Census Bureau results will be provided to help us to confirm or reject some of the existing theories and hypothesis, therefore, giving the final concussions. 2.1 Gender: One of the explanations for different gender-related career expectations is that women career decisions are more complex than those of men. This arises from a bigger involvement in family and children lives or possible early pregnancy (Vonderacek et al., 1986; Lucas et.al., 1997; Eccles, 2005). Even more, women academic and career expectations can be shaped by existing stereotypes or strong gender identity because of social role perceptions (Eagly, 1987; Akerlof and Kranton, 2000; Danziger and Eden, 2007; Gupta et al., 2008). 2.1.1 Stereotype activation theory: Gender stereotyping can influence a persons decision making when it comes to academic or career choice (Heilman, 2001; Nosek, Banaji and Greenwald, 2002). Gupta et al. (2008) examined the impact of stereotypes on both genders intentions to follow traditionally male-related occupations. They found evidence showing that people were likely to internalize stereotypes and act according to them, choosing tasks associated with their own gender. This pattern is more observable if the stereotype is wildly accepted in a culture (Heilman, 2001). According to Day (1990) many women have high aspirations; however, usually they do not expect to be able to have the occupation they would like to in case it is more male-dominated. Wall et al. (1999) was examining the correlation between career expectations and career aspirations. As a result, they found inconsistency between women career expectations and aspirations, i.e., their expectations were most of the time lower than their aspirations. The phenomenon was explained by stereotypes in the society about gender-related jobs and women beliefs about the limits of what they possibly can achieve. 2.1.2 Social role and socialization theory: Another important theory explaining differences in men and women career and academic expectations is the social role theory. The theory, developed by Eagly (1987) is based on the historical division of men and women roles in the society, where women were associated with household responsibilities while men had responsibilities concerning livelihood of the family. Consequently, career expectations started to differ among men and women. Furthermore, the gender-related roles were usually transmitted to future generation making the distinction between appropriate gender roles in the society even stronger (Eagly, 1987). Moreover, the academic and career expectations are shaped by socialization processes people experience in childhood. Socialization shapes people perceptions of what is appropriate for themselves and for others, including what is expected from both genders (Seymour, 1999). Further, in early childhood children learn these roles associated with their gender, which in turn, shapes later perceptions about different types of jobs and influences their academic and career expectations (Danziger and Eden, 2007). According to Eagly and Wood (1999) and Franke et al. (1997) both genders tend to adjust their expectations in accordance with their social roles and expect to have occupations connected with their own gender (Dunne, Elliott and Carlsen, 1981). This leads to men occupying men-related professions and attaining higher educational levels while women tend to enter more female-related studies and jobs and attain lower educational levels (Powell and Butterfield, 2003). Although, gender stereotyping has been diminishing and the gender gap in education has been decreasing (Power and Wojtkiewiez, 2004), there are still fewer female than male representatives in men-related studies and profession fields (Powell and Butterfield, 2003); this shows that Eaglys (1987) social role theory is a considerable attempt to explain the differences between female and male academic and career expectations. 2.2 Ethicity: There are two main views, respectively structuralist and culturalist, that tend to explain differences in educational attainment between ethnic groups. 2.2.1 Structuralist theory: According to structuralist perspective, differences in educational choices between ethnic groups can be explained by external factors. The most influential factor, following structuralist theory, shaping ones expectations is the teacher support. This view has been supported by Ellis and Lane (1963) and Wall et al. (1999) who state that teacher support have an influence on ethnic minority students perceptions about academic and career opportunities. Unfortunately, most of the time teacher expectations are negatively correlated with ethnic minority group students expectations (Strand, 2007). In his report, Strand (2007) found evidence that teachers are likely to develop lower expectations for certain ethnic groups, especially for Black students. They also tend to hold unequal attitude towards White and Black student behaviors due to racism and social stereotypes. This, as a result, leads to a situation where ethnic minority students, following teacher beliefs about them, lower their ow n expectations of the possible outcomes regardless to their initial high aspirations. This, in turn, can explain the differences in educational attainment between Black students and their other ethnicity peers. However, the hypothesis, that educational expectations and attainment between ethnic groups can be fully explained by racism and social stereotypes have been criticized. Modood (2003) has argued that Asian students tend to face more social pressure and racial harassment than Black Caribbean and Black African students, yet their achievements are outstanding and there is no evidence that Asian students would experience aspiration-expectation discrepancies due to the racism toward their ethnic group. Although, there exist several problems with the structuralist core assumptions, their ideas present useful and testable information that helps to explain and understand the reasons behind Black African and Caribbean student aspiration-expectation discrepancies. 2.2.2 Culturalist theory: According to culturalist point of view, differences in educational choices rise from internal factors, like internalization of historical and social norms or constraints. Therefore, culturalist perspective can partly fill the missing holes in the structuralist theory and explain why, for example, Asian students perform better than their Black peers although are both prone to racial harassment. Caplan et al. (1991) has argued that Asian performance is significantly better than one for other ethnic groups due to their cultural perceptions and understanding. It is claimed that Asian students tend to hold higher sense of responsibility for their family and prioritize self-reliance more than students from other ethnic groups, especially, Black Africans and Black Caribbeans. It is observed that Black Caribbean boys on average experience bigger peer pressure than other ethnic groups. They are exposed to the pressure to adopt the lifestyle of street culture, which negatively influences their academic performance (Sewell, 1997). Ogbu and Fordhams (1986) have contributed to the explanation why Black students tend to have low educational attainment despite the fact that they are holding high educational aspirations. They focused on two opposite ways how students are thinking and behaving, i.e., acting White and acting Black. Due to the previously mentioned peer pressure of adopting the street culture, acting White, i.e., doing well at school, is not seen as appropriate behavior for Black students. Therefore, Black students choose to keep their identities and are avoiding acting White, what results in lower educational achievements and attainment than in case of an absence of this pressure. Another factor that triggers the low educational attainment for Black African and Caribbean students is the socio-historical factor (Ogbu, 1991). Based on the historical roles in the society for Black population, Black African and Black Caribbean students may under value the necessity of investment in education. This is due to job ceiling they might feel they are facing. It has been suggested that Black people do not have the same economic opportunities as White people in the job market. In a recent study, Fouad and Byars-Winston (2005) found that, despite the high aspiration level among the Black students, they expected fewer job offers and opportunities than their White counterparts. Therefore, it is easy to understand why Black student do not see education as an essential tool for being able to gain a high position in the labor force and their academic attainment is lower than the one for other ethnic groups. This in turn, unfortunately, has resulted in a tendency that Black peopl e are overrepresented in low skilled jobs and are a considerable propo

Friday, January 17, 2020

Looking for Alaska Essay

In Looking for Alaska by John Green, the protagonist, Miles â€Å"Pudge† Halter, is very dynamic. In the beginning of the book, Pudge had no friends and was looking for what he calls the â€Å"Great Perhaps.† So he goes away to boarding school and meets â€Å"The Colonel†, Takumi, Lara, and Alaska. They were all immediate friends but Alaska and Pudge were drawn to each other. Pudge went from only having his mother and father at his going away party to having lifelong friends that really care about him. An important personality trait Pudge has that helps him grow throughout the story is How does the main conflict in the story impact the protagonist’s development? (Think about how the conflict gets resolved and its influences on the protagonist) Reader’s Discovery In Looking for Alaska, John Green demonstrates that even after tragedy, life always goes on. Connecting Literature to Reality All change is not growth, as all movement is not forward. To me, this quote means that not all changes are for the better. Sometimes things happen that make someone or something worse than before. A change can either be good or bad; a step forward or backward. Examples: 1) If one or both of your parents lose their job, then that could be a bad change for your whole family. You might not be able to afford some things. 2) Failing a grade could be considered a step back instead of a step forward. 3) Having a serious injury could also be a step backward. You might not be able to do as much as before.